Evolution of Programming
In the 20th century as a programmer, you have to learn and write machine code. In the 21st century, it is no longer the case.
Now you need to learn how to write do loops; in the future you may only need
Automating Resource Management
Quoted from Guy L. Steele Jr.’s talk at Strange Loop in 2011.
Keep adding levels of abstractions:
- Coding in octal or decimal
- Original form, write strings
- Names for instructions
- No longer care about the actual numerical values
- Relocating assemblers and linkers
- Compiler is allowed to move instructions within memory and link them together
- No longer care about where in the memory the program is placed
- Expression compilation
- No longer care about the order of in which instructions are coded
- Register allocation
- Automated by the compiler
- Stack management of local data
- Automated by the compiler
- Heap management
- No longer care about where my data is at
- Virtual memory / address remapping
Next Level of Parallel Programming
- The best way to write parallel applications is not to have to think about parallelism.
- Need for separation of concerns
- The issue is not so much parallelism as independence.
- Accumulators are BAD. Divide-and-conquer is GOOD.
- Certain algebraic properties are very important.
- Associative: grouping doesn’t matter
- Commutative: order doesn’t matter
- Idempotent: duplicates don’t matter
- Identity: this value doesn’t matter
- Zero: other values don’t matter
- For debugging, reproduceability is extremely important.
- Worth sacrificing performance for
We need a different mindset for parallel prgramming:
- Good sequential code minimizes total number of operations.
Good parallel code often performs redundant operations to reduce communications.
- Good sequential algorithms minimizes space usage.
Good parallel code often requires extra space to permit temporal decoupling.
- Sequential idioms stress linear problem decomposition, i.e. process one thing at a time and accumulate results.
- Good parallel code usually requires multiway problem docomposition and multiway aggregation of results.
map, reduce in the last bullet point.
Guy proposed a language level parallel paradigm where
- programmers define your data structures and methods;
- programmer ensure to the compiler that your data structures and methods maintains certain properties like associativity and commutativity;
- the compiler decides if it is possible to apply a parallel execution given the available resources on the fly.
Invariants give the implementation wiggle room, i.e. the freedom to exploit alternate representations and implementations. In particular, associativity gives implementations the necessary wiggle room to use parallelism—or not—as resources dictate.
So, in general, he envisioned an automated parallelism management. Brilliant!